Liberation movements arose in Southern Africa in the second half of the 20th Century to end with colonialism and white-minority rule, all sharing an African nationalism and socialist ideology. Three decades later all remain in power, but they are steadily losing support in young and changing societies which claim more accountability. This paper analyzes the context in which the Former Liberation Movements of Southern Africa (FMLSA) — formed by parties in six countries: ANC in South Africa, SWAPO in Namibia, ZANU-PF in Zimbabwe, MPLA in Angola, FRELIMO in Mozambique and CCM in Tanzania— arrived to power and how they have fared once in government, analyzing the similarities and differences amongst them.
The Slow Death of Liberation Movements in Southern Africa
KeywordsLiberation Movements, African Politics, Politics, Africa, Apartheid